Reference flow in the MFA for which is suitable the technology
Salt (NaCl) extracted from industrial wastewater
Main basic characteristic of mentioned waste and technology that can be used to implement CE is following. In production of canned fish, about 1020 tons of salt per year is used, of which about 40% is discharged with wastewaters, ie about 400 tons of salt that can be extracted from wastewater through several different methods and technologies. One of the technology is biorefineriy. Considering that fish byproduct contains a high share of fish oil (more than 20%), proteins and water it is possible of producing omega 3 oil. During the process of thermal processing of sardines in the process of canned sardines production, surplus fluid from the canned fish (water, fish oil, proteins, fat) also ends up in wastewaters. It is assumed that wastewater drains more than 125 tons of fish oil each year, which could be separated by a centrifugal oil separator and used for various purposes, from the production of omega 3 oil to biodiesel production.
In canned fish production, the collection of anchovy residues can be separated in two groups: heads and spines, and anchovy remains. Technologie that can be used is transportation of dried anchovy residues to minimise the total mass transported. On one hand, heads and spines can be used to produce fishmeal and fish oil, whereas the anchovy remains can be employed to produce anchovy paste. On the other hand, anchovy residues can be incinerated to obtain energy
Organizative processes to support closing the loops
Technology mentioned above can be a big part of the implementation of CE and closing the loop of waste generation. In our region, as already mentioned several times, industry is not very developed and companies are mostly small. So, in the organizative processes, companies have two options; to invest in technology alone, and to use it only for their needs and their waste generation, or to connect with other small companies of the same products and use the technology together in order to reduce and share the costs and to have more benefits of it. In addition, Split – Dalmatia County beside the mainland and hinterland part, includes four islands. In case of connecting companies, transport of waste from companies on islands needs to be included in organization processes.
In these processes the opinion of practitioners is important. In our interviews with the potential practitioners of proposed technologies for selected waste streams, we have got some useful information about implementation. For example, after production of olive oil or canned fish, generated waste is not handled very well, so companies have to pay waste removal to other companies, what is a big cost for them. After applying proposed technologies of CE in waste generation, waste removal will not be necessary and therefor, costs can be reduced.
Possible limiting factors
Limiting factors in implementation of technologies can certainly be a problem. The main factor is that we cannot know how many people will be necessary for technology as well as how much technology will cost. In our Country that is not a common practice, so implementation can have some difficulties. Also, industries in our pilot regions are small, so maybe they want be able to implement technology alone, due to big costs. So, at the local scale, degree of implementation can be to join together all small producers of the same or similar product, in order to work together on implementing the technology that benefits them all.
PP’s opinion of the technology
PP’s are informed about the technologies not only now, but also during the previous deliverables connected to the Project, as well as during the whole processes of collecting information and visits to the selected companies and producers. PP’s also see big potential in development of these technologies, not only for the companies but also on the region level to. For them, especially interesting is possible cooperation between small producers in order to achieve better goals and solutions in CE and waste prevention.
Concept and conclusions how the technology can affect the CE effect
Technology can be very important for CE effect. Waste is a big problem for the producers because is a big cost, and it can be benefit with the use of good and developed technology. Results can be very promising but it have to be very careful and realistic. Also, it is important to make a financial analysis together with the risk analysis to see how realistic technology is and if the development of technology is realistic. From the local aspect, concept of the technology would be helpful and beneficial not only for companies but also for the regions
Charts, photo, diagrams
flow, waste from canned fish production is listed as most relevant, and it is
described in Part 1b, and technology related to the olive oil production is
shown in the pictures below for the BaU scenario and CE solution.
For the previous information source we used our direct
contact with companies.
During the first phase, we have conducted field research, which has
given us better understanding of the waste flow and possible improvements in
the chosen industry and technology. We have interviewed several facilities of
each type of industry and during our visits we had full tour of industry
processes as well as insight on the technologies which can improve CE effect
and generation of the waste.